Current and Former ‘Sex Workers’ Form Coalition against Sex Trade

A coalition between current and formerly prostituted people has formed in Australia. Calling themselves SURVIVORS WEST AUSTRALIA AGAINST PROSTITUTION (SWAAP), the group are based mainly in the regional and rural west. The group has responded to a recent article in an annex of The West Australian newspaper, The Albany Advertiser which published an article about a brothel raid by the Australian Border Force (ABF) in which two women, aged 61 and 56 from China, were arrested for breaching visa conditions and “organising sex workers”. An anonymous “former” pimp contacted the Albany Advertiser to give his opinion on regulating brothels claiming he had been tipped off about the raid, appeared to support it, and yet claimed prostitution was a necessity.

albany advertiser brothel raid resized 2019

SWAAP were published anonymously in an opinion piece and have given permission for it to be transcribed and the name of their group to be shared The piece was originally published in the Food For Thought section of edition No.9 of Voice of the South The piece reads in full :

” We need to talk. We are a group comprised of current and former sex workers. Most of us require anonymity due to repercussions from former pimps and prostitution lobbyists. Most of us also require treatment for PTSD. Since the raid on a brothel in Albany we feel we have an obligation to speak out. Should women be corralled like cattle in to regulated areas so men can use us for sex? According to a former pimp quoted in the Albany Advertiser thats exactly what should happen. To this former pimp its a “necessity” particularly for “lonely” men and Albany is being over-run by independent sex workers just dying to get our hands them. He can’t make a living off our backs anymore. Does your heart bleed for him? Ours do not.

When we talk about paying women for sex, we are not talking about loneliness we are talking about sexual entitlement. Loneliness can not be eliminated by entitlement. Intimacy can never be bought. The fact is, the best time for us is when we get to wash the men off us, each and every one. We tolerate these men at best. Sometimes that makes them angry, but most don’t care.

Others say that if men don’t get sex they will commit sexual assault, as if we exist to mitigate violence. The assertion that lonely widowers, or anyone for that matter, need sex is preposterous. Its offensive to women and its also offensive to men, because most men do not buy women for sex, nor do they rape if they don’t get it. They think better of themselves, and women.

When prostitution is exposed a community may ask what should be done about it.

There are strong opinions on this and they fit roughly into two camps: those who want it prohibited and those who think that decriminalising it,( like marijuana, for example), will make it safer.

The problem is neither of these approaches work .

Prohibition makes us unsafe. As current and former sex workers we know arrest is something men hold over our heads, the reason being its easier to arrest one woman than it is to arrest the buyers. There are far more of them than there are of us.

But decriminalisation of prostitution, (unlike decriminalising marijuana, whatever your view on that) leads to expansion of exploitation and trafficking. Also, making it a legitimate job means we have no support to exit prostitution.

As one of our members states, “ Everybody hates a trafficker, but not enough to stop the buyers.”

Often overlooked in discussions, is the Nordic or Equality Model. This legislation does not corrall us into darkness or ‘tolerated’ areas. It decriminalises us, offers comprehensive support to get out, and sometimes access to citizen status if we’ve been trafficked. It criminalises the buyers and the profiteers. It’s amazing how quickly a man can turn off his explosive sexual “need” when a fine is held over his head. Its also amazing how quickly traffickers find they’ve met their match.

As a group we face fierce backlash from organisations which claim they are proud “sex workers”, not victims. We also face this from well-meaning people who have never been in prostitution, mainly because they listen to such groups. It is not the fault of the broader public that they are fed propaganda which serves the sex industry. Groups that claim to be run by sex workers are government funded and do little to help us except lobby to decriminalise prostitution.

While police may exercise discretion in applying laws, they can only work within the legal framework we as a community help shape.

The Equality Model is the best human rights practice we have so far. We regret calling for decriminalisation. We refuse to listen to ‘sex work is work’ jargon and we also reject we should be punished. Few people talk about the men who buy us and why they are entitled to do so. We ask that you think about those men and this tacit acceptance. Such attitudes are reflected in the rape culture we experience all together. We as community can help end this cultural injustice. We begin by listening to survivors.

SWAAP says it’s aim is to dispel myths around the inevitability of prostitution and counter propaganda disseminated by government funded groups, such those carrying the insignia of the red umbrella. A spokesperson stated, ” Scarlet Alliance, Vixen, SIN, all that lot….They don’t help us and they don’t represent us. They just use the claim that they are sex workers to lobby for decriminalization.”

The group can be contacted through their new Facebook page :

For those currently or formerly in the sex trade who want to get active ( in whatever way they can, no pressure) for the Nordic/Equality Model- messages can be left on 0436 285 367. Confidentiality assured.

Journalists are also welcome to contact SWAAP in the knowledge that we are political, and not partial to sharing horror stories for clickbait. Most of our members are anonymous and wish to remain that way.

The status of women in New Zealand: A summary of findings and independent working report

Out of New Zealand

writing by renee

This report gathers findings from a range of sources, as well as including anecdotal material on unresearched aspects of women’s status in New Zealand, to paint an overall picture of the more urgent aspects of women’s status and encourage readers to make critical connections.

Male violence against women

“Intimate partner” violence

In the seven years from 2009 – 2015, there were 92 deaths caused by intimate partner violence in New Zealand. 63 women and 29 men were killed. 70 offenders were male, and 22 female. The gendered nature of this violence does not stop at these numbers, because 83 cases involved a recorded history of abuse. In 82 of those, women were the primary victim. In 67 cases those women were killed, and in 16 cases they killed in self defense.
Source: Family Violence Death Review Committee report, 2015.

There were 33,209 domestic violence incidents in the fiscal…

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Mental Health Policy For Victims Of Prostitution: a Paper by Lisa Mallett

This week Eachone acknowledges a beloved woman and activist Lisa Mallet who passed away July 7.  Lisa was a dedicated and loving supporter of girls and women and a dear friend.

Our sense of loss is immeasurable.

Her blog, co-authored by her partner and love of her life Liz Waterhouse and dear friend Ari  Miller, focusses exclusively on human rights abuses against lesbians and can be found here : .

Here at Eachone we mourn Lisa’s tragic passing knowing she will always be with us in spirit and living in our hearts.

We publish this paper she wrote on prostitution as yet another testament to her commitment to ending violence against all girls and women with our enduring thanks.

Lisa Mallet, you are loved forever.lisa courage

Mental Health Policy for Victims of Prostitution
by Lisa A. Mallett
The Ohio State University

Nowhere in mental health policy in the United States do we see as much inconsistency and inattention to evidence-based research as we do when addressing the mental health of prostituted women and girls. Despite research linking prostitution to increased rates of depression, anxiety, PTSD and substance use disorders, many in government, law enforcement, and society consider prostitution to be a victimless crime; a profession with occupational hazards of negative mental health outcomes, violence and even death.

Although most women in prostitution started as children, our laws attempt to give separate meanings to prostitution and human trafficking, devaluing the impacts of trauma experienced by women once they hit 18 years old. The sex-trafficked girl becomes the sex-worker woman and a rescue from slavery becomes an arrest for crime. All the while, the buyers, almost exclusively men, are seen sympathetically as normalized consumers of female bodies.
This paper will examine federal, state and local law and policy regarding prostitution, with particular attention to the similarities and differences in how human trafficking and prostitution are addressed in legal, medical and social services sectors. Research will be introduced to show the links between prostitution and mental health issues resulting from physical and sexual abuse of prostituted women as children, as well as from trauma related to violence experienced by women in prostitution.

Research will also show that prostitution is very much a condition forced upon mostly Women of Color, poor women and previously victimized women, making “choice” a dubious conclusion for why women enter prostitution.

Finally, this paper will take a global look at the ways countries have addressed prostitution and harms associated with it, and recommendations will be made for a victim-centered, trauma-informed, demand-reducing policy towards prostitution, that seeks to end prostitution and produce positive mental health outcomes for prostituted women.

Federal and State Policy Regarding Prostitution and Human Trafficking:
According to the U.S. Department of Justice, prostitution is “a sexual act or contact with another person in return for giving or receiving a fee or a thing of value” and it is illegal for any person “to cause, compel, induce, entice, or procure or attempt to cause, compel, induce, entice, or procure any individual to engage in prostitution” (The United States Department of Justice, 2014).  However, federal policy also allows for states to decide how and to what degree they will implement this law, leaving room for Nevada to legalize prostitution in some counties. In contrast, the Department of Homeland Security defines human trafficking as, “modern-day slavery, involv[ing] the use of force, fraud, or coercion to obtain some type of labor or commercial sex act” (The United States Department of Homeland Security, 2016). Although each identifies the coercive nature of both crimes in relation to the prostituted, federal law still considers some prostituted women as criminals. These are women that the law argues had “choice” when they engaged in prostitution.
In 2002, a National Security Presidential Directive was issued, in which the U.S. Government took the strong position that prostitution should not be legalized, “based on evidence that prostitution is inherently harmful and dehumanizing, and fuels trafficking in persons, a form of modern-day slavery” (U.S. Department of State, 2004). The directive also asserts that state attempts at regulation, including health regulation of prostitution, have failed, because the core problem, “the routine abuse and violence that form the prostitution experience,” leaves women and children, “physically, mentally, emotionally, and spiritually devastated “ (U.S. Department of State, 2004). It cites research showing the link between prostitution and trauma, effectively creating a policy that recognizes that prostitution is not harmless and is not a victimless crime, yet is still punishable by law for those that are prostituted.
With this arguably contradictory federal policy, local governments have adopted their own policies in a myriad of different ways across the country. In Columbus, OH it is a crime to buy or sell sex, unless it is through human trafficking, and then it is not a crime for the person being trafficked.  However, local law has been left in a kind of legal limbo, based on similar reasoning expressed in federal policy. Franklin County views prostitution as a crime, but it recognizes that the (mostly) women being prostituted are victims of an inherently harmful institution. Not only that, but the harm being done is leaving lasting physical and psychological damage on not only women who are victims of prostitution, but on the community as well. So into this policy confusion CATCH Court (Judicial), demand-deterrent policing and programs similar to domestic violence programs, were developed to attempt to address the inconsistencies between laws meant to punish prostitution and the history of trauma and re-victimization that forces almost all women into, and to remain in, prostitution.

Prostitution, Violence, Mental Health and Substance Use:

Most studies have found that the average age of entry into prostitution is 12 to 16 years of age (Shively, Kliorys, Wheeler, & Hunt, 2012, p. 11). Studies have also found that 57% to 82% of prostitutes had been sexually abused as children and 49% to 72% reported childhood physical abuse (Farley & Barkan, 1998; Farley, Lynne, & Cotton, 2005). In a U.S. study, (41%) of 61 pregnant prostituted girls reported seriously considering or attempting suicide within the past year (Willis & Levy, 2002, p. 1419).

Studies related to adults in prostitution have shown that 82% had been physically assaulted; 83% had been threatened with a weapon; 68% had been raped while working as prostitutes (Farley, Lynne, & Cotton, 2005). In a study done in Miami, FL, 71.2% of prostitutes had experienced a violent encounter (Surratt, Kurtz, Weaver, & Inciardi, 2005, p. 34). Ina Vanwesenbeeck, in Prostitutes’ Well-being and Risk, found that in the Netherlands, where prostitution is legal, 60% of prostituted women reported being physically assaulted and 40% experienced sexual violence (Farley, 2004). In a study of prostitutes in five countries, 73% percent reported physical assault in prostitution, 62% had been raped in prostitution (Farley, Baral, Kiremire, & Sezgin, 1998, p. 405).
There have been numerous studies over the decades that link prostitution with high rates of PTSD and other mental health issues. In the Vancouver, BC study, 72% of women in prostitution met DSM-IV criteria for PTSD (Farley, Lynne, & Cotton, 2005, p. 242). In the five countries study, 67% met the criteria for PTSD (Farley, Baral, Kiremire, & Sezgin, 1998, p. 405).  In San Francisco, a study found that 68% met DSM 111-R criteria for a diagnosis of PTSD (Farley & Barkan, 1998, p. 37). In Miami, 37.4% met criteria for moderate or severe anxiety, 52.9% had symptoms of moderate or severe depression, 69.2% had symptoms of acute traumatic stress (Surratt, Kurtz, Weaver, & Inciardi, 2005, p. 34). In Korea, prostitutes experienced higher levels of, “PTSD re-experiencing and avoidance, somatization, identity problems, relational problems, and affect regulation problems as compared to women in the control group (non-prostituted women) and independent of any history of childhood abuse” (Choi, Klein, Shin, & Lee, 2009, p. 942).
Studies have also shown a strong connection between prostitution and substance abuse disorders (Burnette, et al., 2008).

Those who are not addicted prior to entering prostitution become addicted soon after because of past and continued trauma. They are caught in a cycle of ever greater dependence on drugs in order to self-medicate and support their addiction. This not only works to the pimp’s advantage, but it is also a tactic used by pimps, as it keeps prostituted women and girls destabilized and dependent through addiction and poverty (Shively, Kliorys, Wheeler, & Hunt, 2012, p. 15).
Prostitution, Poverty and Cultural Considerations:

In study after study, women who are prostituted overwhelmingly report wanting to leave prostitution. From Vancouver, B.C. to Indonesia, San Francisco and Mexico (to name a few), 88-96% of women said that they wanted to leave prostitution, regardless of whether prostitution was legal or illegal, in brothels or on the street (Farley, Lynne, & Cotton, 2005; Farley, 2003; Farley & Barkan, 1998; Farley, 2004). Most prostitutes in these studies reported being homeless and listed the need for housing as one of the main barriers to exiting prostitution.
Prostitution disproportionately affects Women of Color. Studies in Canada have shown that Canada’s First Nations People are overrepresented in prostitution by over 50% compared to their racial representation in Canada as a whole (Nixon, Tutty, Downe, Gorkoff, & Ursel, 2002, p. 1022). One study found Aboriginal youth comprised ‘90% of the visible sex trade’ in some Canadian communities (Farley, Lynne, & Cotton, 2005, p. 245). Even in Amsterdam, where prostitution is legal, around three-quarters of prostituted women are from Eastern Europe, Africa or Asia (Holligan, 2011). The free market approach to prostitution in the Netherlands has left a void in supply as demand has risen and domestic-born women willing to “work” as prostitutes has declined. In response, the Netherlands is targeting poor women outside of the country, in effect normalizing prostitution as an “option for the poor” (Raymond, 2004, p. 319). And it’s not just the prostituted that experience the interaction of racism and poverty. For instance,
prostitution often occurs in poor neighborhoods as a part of the local economy. Strip clubs and stores that sell pornography tend to also be zoned into poor neighborhoods and those neighborhoods are typically Communities of Color (Farley, 2003, p. 254).
Considerations for Mental Health Policy:
The body of research available to date suggests that prostitution is largely a crime involving female victims (prostitutes) and male perpetrators (pimps and johns). Most women in prostitution were trafficked as children, and as children, a majority of them were victims of physical and sexual abuse. When these girls turn 18 years of age, the law arbitrarily transforms them from human trafficking victim to criminal prostitute, despite understanding that by this time, these young women are trapped by trauma, abuse, poverty, substance use disorders and numerous other barriers to freedom of choice.

The research also tells us that if these women did not enter prostitution as children, they most likely had experienced sexual abuse as a child, and/or turned to prostitution, often as a result of coercion, in hopes of alleviating their poverty.  In prostitution they have experienced continued re-victimization and trauma through violence perpetrated by pimps, johns and police. Research tells us there is a high prevalence of PTSD among women in prostitution and that Women of Color are disproportionately represented in this population. It also tells us that when legalization has been used as a means of reducing harm to women in prostitution, it has only increased demand for women and children trafficking victims into commercial sex slavery (U.S. Department of State, 2004). Finally, the research overwhelmingly suggests that women and girls in prostitution want to get out, but don’t feel that they can, because of homelessness, lack of employment, drug addiction, mental health disorders, threats of violence and other barriers to freedom.

Current Interventions for Addressing Mental Health Issues for Victims of Prostitution:
Approaches to mental health services for victims of prostitution vary all over the world and it is no different in the United States. Typically, non-government organizations (NGO’s), or other non-profit organizations, offer survivor support services to prostitutes exiting prostitution, or to those seeking services for injuries. In the U.S. there are over 400 survivor-focused organizations, many of which were started and staffed by survivors of commercial sexual exploitation (Abt Associates, 2016).  One example in Ohio is Safe Harbor in Springfield, OH, a residential program offering trauma-informed, substance abuse treatment for women who have experienced abuse, domestic violence, homelessness and prostitution/trafficking (Safe Harbor, 2014). Safe Harbor is part of a larger collaborative effort, the Central Ohio Rescue and Restore Coalition(CORRC), with a mission of providing “a collaborative community response to human trafficking in central Ohio through education, services, advocacy, and prosecution,” including “victim services, public awareness, demand reduction, legislative advocacy and support for law enforcement” (Central Ohio Rescue and Restore Coalition, 2016). This is a faith-based coalition managed by The Salvation Army, but there are other organizations in Central Ohio, such as The Sexual Assault Response Network of Central Ohio (SARNCO) that have hospital advocates trained to identify and offer support and resources for women who are trafficked and go to the emergency department after a sexual assault.
Part of the CORRC mission is demand reduction, which involves collaborative efforts with government and local law enforcement, among others. Demand reduction tactics are evidence-based approaches to reducing the demand for prostitution, by targeting the buyers of prostitution. These tactics include auto seizure, community service, John School, neighborhood letter writing campaigns, neighborhood action, public education, reverse stings and shaming to name a few. Most cities employing demand-deterrent policing strategies use several tactics at once and Columbus, OH is one of them (Abt Associates, 2016).
Finally, for some women in prostitution, mental health services begin in CATCH Court as defendants who have been charged in the Franklin County Municipal Court with prostitution, solicitation, or loitering to solicit. “CATCH” stands for Changing Actions to Change Habits and was founded in 2009 by Judge Paul M. Herbert. CATCH Court, “blends punitive sentences with a 2-year treatment-oriented non-adversarial program for rearrested prostitutes who suffer from posttraumatic stress syndrome, depression, and drug addiction” (Miner-Romanoff, 2015, p. 1). If a woman has a history of being a victim of human trafficking when arrested, she enters :

a 2-year intensive program emphasizes treatment for drug addiction, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder by connecting defendants to appropriate substance abuse and mental health facilities and social services resources and by teaching healthy lifestyle choices, including stable housing, supportive interpersonal relationships, and education. (Miner-Romanoff, 2015, p.1)

As of 2015, the graduation rate was 21% and 47.62% of participants reported an increase in mental health (Miner-Romanoff, 2015, p. 2).
A Holistic Approach to Mental Health Interventions for Victims of Prostitution:
Despite current efforts to address mental health issues for victims of prostitution in Central Ohio and across the United States, there still remains a strong dissonance between the way we as society view prostitution and the way we treat people who are sexually exploited. Many in the United States, and globally, view prostitutes as “sex workers”, individuals (mostly women) that trade their bodies to men for some form of payment. Because they consider this a simple business transaction the next logical step is legalization. Legalization allows the woman “choice” and “empowerment” over her body and her destiny. Research shows us that legalization does not produce this result for most, and in fact, increases the demand for prostitution and human trafficking victims.
Our government views prostitution as a crime; one committed by buyers and sellers alike. A prostituted woman faces punitive measures. She becomes a convicted criminal. However, that is not the full story. As examined in this paper, government also recognizes that prostitution has victims. That prostitution causes long-lasting physical and mental harm to its victims; mostly women and girls. Then the judicial system steps in with a trauma-informed approach to address this victimization. CATCH Court becomes the mental health services and resource provider for victims of prostitution, much like the prison system has become the primary mental health provider for some of the most vulnerable people in society.
Delivery of mental health services and social support services for victims of prostitution should not begin in the judicial system. In order to integrate the most current research with government policy, law enforcement tactics and victim-centered services, we must take a comprehensive trauma-informed approach to public policy. This approach must include the decriminalization of all those who are prostituted. The Nordic Model, or Sex Buyer Law, “decriminalizes all those who are prostituted, provides support services to help them exit, and makes buying people for sex a criminal offence, in order to reduce the demand that drives sex trafficking” (Nordic Model Now!, 2016).

The Nordic Model began in Sweden and the latest research is promising. Since criminalization of the buying of sex in 2009, prostitutes have reported a 48% decrease in rapes, a 38% decrease in getting punched with fists, a 50% decrease in pimp violence, a 65% decrease in violence from regular clients and a 60% decrease in violence from an unfamiliar man in a car (Bjorndahl, 2012; Berg, 2013).
Decriminalizing those who are prostituted and targeting sex buyers is not enough. A holistic approach to mental health service delivery for victims of prostitution must also include a robust investment in case management services and anti-poverty measures. Much like consumer advocacy for victims of domestic violence, victims of prostitution need access to housing, stable living conditions for juvenile victims, employment, substance abuse treatment, mental health counseling, education, child-care, victims of crime compensation and all other social services and supports that enable victims to heal from trauma. Instead of the judicial system, crisis intervention services, mental health centers, social services and victims-support organizations should be the foundation from which victims of prostitution begin the process of exiting from commercial sex exploitation and rebuilding their lives.
I was the guy who used to say, ‘This is the world’s oldest profession.’ I was the guy that would have said this is a victimless crime. Little did I know, really I was ignorant, what was behind this: that there was this clandestine system of pimps and traffickers that are using these women for their own financial gain. And that there was this elaborate system to manipulate and control them and hold them down to be slaves to the drugs, slaves to their lies.” –Judge Paul Herbert (Mcentyre, 2013)
The system Judge Herbert describes is a system fueled by the belief that women are commodities and violence against women is tolerated. This is not surprising as men stand to lose the most if the system crumbles and women and girls are no longer vulnerable to sexual exploitation.

With a prostitution legalization lobby akin to Big Tobacco and Big Oil, the Legal Pro-Legalization lobby in the U.S.s stand to reap billions more dollars on top of an already multi-billion-dollar industry built on oppression and victimization of traumatized and vulnerable women and children;
“As a teenager, I worked in Germany’s legal sex industry. I was, like many girls in the club, underage; most of us were immigrants, nearly all of us had histories of trauma and abuse prior to our entry into commercial sex. Several of us had pimps despite working in a legal establishment; all of us used copious amounts of drugs and alcohol to get through each night.” –Rachel Lloyd author of “Girls Like Us” (Lloyd, 2015)

In order to address mental health concerns for victims of prostitution, government policy must define and defend the concept of prostitutes as victims, not workers;
What the term “sex worker” actually does, most effectively, is to disguise the staggering worldwide abuse of girls and women used in prostitution, by including them as, somehow, part of the same “occupational category” as the men who are abusing them. It is as if we said that the Warden, and the Prisoner incarcerated for life, are both “engaged in Prison-Work.” The crucial issues of power, choice, and ability to leave, are ignored, covered-over, made invisible. –Robert Brannon, Department of Psychology, Brooklyn College C.U.N.Y. (Brannon, 2015)

“However, despite a more cohesive policy for treatment of mental health issues for victims of prostitution, it must be understood that once a person has been pulled into the commercial sex industry, the damage has been done and most will never fully escape the trauma; Dissociation becomes a part of how you operate in daily life.  In prevention programs I talk about the possibilities of healing from sexual exploitation, but I have to be truthful that, once you cross that line, you are never the same again. Yes, healing and recovery is possible, but return to pre-exploitation state is not. It is as if once you cross the line of that first ‘date’ or ‘appointment’, something has been done, so the next one and the next one don’t really matter. You are already in it feeling worthless and empty, and never able to return to the person you were before. You are in the servitude in the system of prostitution.”— Autumn Burris, Survivor, “Prostitution Narratives: Stories of Survival in the Sex Trade” (Norma & Tankard Reist, 2016, p. 137)


Abt Associates. (2016). Additional Resources. Retrieved from Resources for the Prevention of Prostitution and Sex Trafficking:
Abt Associates. (2016). Map Locations. Retrieved from Resources for the Preventiom of Prostitution and Sex Trafficking:
Berg, S. (2013, January 22). New research shows violence decreases under Nordic model: Why the radio silence? Retrieved from Feminist Current:
Bjorndahl, U. (2012). Dangerous Liaisons: A report on the violence women in prostitution in Oslo are exposed to. Oslo: Municipality of Oslo.
Brannon, R. (2015, March 6). Trafficked Women, Used in Prostitution, Are Not “Sex-Workers”. Retrieved from NOMAS: National Organization for Men Against Sexism:
Burnette, M. L., Lucas, E., Ilgen, M., Frayne, S. M., Mayo, J., & Weitlauf, J. (2008). Prevalence and Health Correlates of Prostitution Among Patients Entering Treatment for Substance Use Disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 337-344.
Central Ohio Rescue and Restore Coalition. (2016). Central Ohio Rescue and Restore Coalition. Retrieved from Central Ohio Rescue and Restore Coalition:

Choi, H., Klein, C., Shin, M.-S., & Lee, H.-J. (2009). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Disorders of Extreme Stress (DESNOS) Symptoms Following Prostitution and Childhood Abuse . Violence Against Women, 933-951.
Farley, M. (2003). Prostitution and the Invisibility of Harm. Women & Therapy, 247-280.
Farley, M. (2004). “Bad for the Body, Bad for the Heart”: Prostitution Harms Women Even if Legalized or Decriminalized. Violence Against Women, 1087-1125.
Farley, M., & Barkan, H. (1998). Prostitution, Violence, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder . Women & Health, 37-49.
Farley, M., Baral, I., Kiremire, M., & Sezgin, U. (1998). Prostitution in Five Countries: Violence and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (South Africa, Thailand, Turkey, USA, Zambia) . Feminism & Psychology, 405-426.
Farley, M., Lynne, J., & Cotton, A. J. (2005). Prostitution in Vancouver: Violence and the Colonization of First Nations Women. Transcultural Psychiatry , 242-271.
Holligan, A. (2011, March 21). Amsterdam’s prostitutes targeted by Dutch tax officials. Retrieved from BBC News:
Lloyd, R. (2015, August 24). Legalizing Prostitution Leads to More Trafficking. Retrieved from The New York Times:
Mcentyre, G. (2013, June 26). CATCH Court Changing Way Law Looks At Sex Trade Business. Retrieved from 10tv:

Miner-Romanoff, K. (2015). CATCH Court: Changing Actions to Change Habits. Retrieved from Human Trafficking and the State Courts Collaborative:
Nixon, K., Tutty, L., Downe, P., Gorkoff, K., & Ursel, J. (2002). The Everyday Occurrence: Violence in the Lives of Girls Exploited Through Prostitution. Violence Against Women, 1016-1043.
Nordic Model Now! (2016). What is the Nordic Model? Retrieved from Nordic Model Now!:
Norma, C., & Tankard Reist, M. (2016). Prostitution Narratives: Stories of Survival in the Sex Trade. North Melbourne, Victoria: Spinifex Press.
Raymond, J. G. (2004). Ten Reasons for Not Legalizing Prostitution and a Legal Response to the Demand for Prostitution. Journal of Trauma Practice, 315-332.
Safe Harbor. (2014). Learn About Us. Retrieved from Safe Harbor: A Place to Heal:
Shively, M., Kliorys, K., Wheeler, K., & Hunt, D. (2012). A National Overview of Prostitution and Sex Trafficking Demand Reduction Efforts, Final Report . Cambridge, MA: Abt Associates Inc.
Surratt, H. L., Kurtz, S. P., Weaver, J. C., & Inciardi, J. A. (2005). The Connections of Mental Health Problems, Violent Life Experiences, and the Social Milieu of the “Stroll” with the HIV Risk Behaviors of Female Street Sex Workers. Journal od Psychology & Human Sexuality, 23-44.

The United States Department of Homeland Security. (2016). What Is Human Trafficking? Retrieved from The United States Department of Homeland Security:
The United States Department of Justice. (2014, June 18). Office of Legal Policy. Retrieved from The United StatesDepartment of Justice:
U.S. Department of State. (2004, November 24). The Link Between Prostitution and Sex Trafficking. Retrieved from U.S. Department of State Archive:
Willis, B. M., & Levy, B. S. (2002). Child prostitution: global health burden,research needs,and interventions. The Lancet, 1417-1422.

Renée Gerlich as interviewed by Radio New Zealand about Breast Binding

Silenced by other media , Renee’s interview here:

Women’s Liberation Radio News

New Zealand feminist Renée Gerlich sent WLRN her copy of this interview. She did it on request for Radio New Zealand – before being told it couldn’t broadcast, because it had “simply dropped out of the system”.

Listen carefully to how the interviewer asks Renée questions and how she responds to them to understand why it is likely this interview was censored. WLRN is committed to giving a platform to women who are silenced and marginalized by other media which is why it is an honor to post this interview.

You can also read the transcript on Renée’s blog here:
And visit Renée’s petition against Givealittle’s breast binding campaign here:…indigenous-people

Photo of breast ironing by Getty Images.

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Letter to IWD rally organisers: Organised harassment of women at International Women’s Day rally

Disgraceful! Where is the accountability?

REAL for women

Guest post by IWD Rally Attendees

For the second year in a row a group of us were harassed at the International Women’s Day rally in Melbourne.terf n swerf harassment instructions

This year the harassment dramatically intensified as a throng of bystanders who’d been given instructional flyers joined a trans identified male and sex industry activists in relentlessly attacking us.

The harassment was so bad we decided to write to the organisers to be sure they know the full extend of what happened and ask them what they will do to ensure our safety next year.

This is the letter we wrote:

ATTN: Melbourne IWD March organising collective

Tuesday 12 March 2018

To the organisers of the Melbourne International Women’s Day 2018 rally,

In the wake of the #metoo movement, women all over the world have been rising up and speaking out against male harassment and violence. We are a group of about 15-20…

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Why Kaya Jones’ Revelation Broke my Heart

You’ve probably already seen the news about former Pussycat Doll  Kaya Jones speaking up about  being part of a prostitution ring not a ‘girl group’,  but I have some basic thoughts on it.  Feel free to ad any.
Ariel Levy wrote about the rise of raunch culture in her book ‘Female Chauvinist Pigs’.

Germaine Greer critiqued the notion of Grrrl Power in ‘The Whole Woman’.

And Kasja Ekis Ekman discussed how women and girls adopt the idea of the “whore” as a fashion statement (without ever having been prostituted themselves) in her book ‘Being and Being Bought- Prostitution, Surrogacy and the Split Self’. Appropriating the  ‘uniform’ of the “whore” without having to experience being the “whore”; without acknowledging pimps dress prostituted women this way,  and without knowing that their ‘slut celebration’ clothing is a cruel parody of our sexual servitude and degradation.

Their valid critiques reminded me of when I wore an Anarchist T-Shirt in my youth without having the foggiest idea about Anarchism. I just thought it was punk, so it was cool. A closer example is people who replicate ‘hobo’ fashion with their $400, ‘designed to look dirty’, ripped jeans.  Mocking the homeless whether they realise it or not.

While women and girls are sold merchandise to perform our guise of the “free, sexually liberated” female , prostituted women are ignored and stuck with the reality.

Women and girls are divided in to camps, one of which celebrates the “slut power” ideology that those of us in the sex-trade keep saying, (falling on deaf ears), is no kind of power at all.

When I first saw and heard the Pussycat Dolls song “Dont’ Cha” I shook my head at just how plain un-sisterly it was.  You’re so mean, I thought. Yes, my boyfriend probably did wish I looked just like you, so? Why do you want that? Why do you want him to want you? Why do we want them to want us “like that” at all?

I saw women in designer clothing ( not just the Pussycat Dolls but so many others)  mocking me and my sisters. Glamourising our daily condition of being bought and sold over and over again-  playing  the “whore” but never having to endure it themselves.

Body-shaming  other women and pandering  to men being sold as uber pop-feminism. Women divided from each other again.
But while I knew women were and are constantly marketed this way  and it is capitalist patriarchy winning all the time, I never imagined that these Pussycat Dolls, these women, were literally, not just in the commodified image way,  but literally, being prostituted:

I don’t know why I was even slightly shocked by this revelation, and why it broke my heart to learn it.

The idea of the “whore” is that she has a particular sexiness a wife or girlfriend doesn’t so she is the one who lures men away from partners, and that equals power.   The song “Don’t Cha” repeats that mantra overtly.  Of course the opposite is true, men do the luring, the procuring, the buying.

Kaya, I remember thinking, at least you can choose something;  you can replicate our signature “whore” clothes for fashion without being forced to be one,  like me and my sisters were.   I assumed despite all I knew about feminist theory and women as commodities, you had some kind of power and were making fun of us.  Mocking us without knowing us, using our exploitation as a prop.  Parodying us in that particular way only people with money and power do.

I was wrong . I wept when I learned this had happened to you and the other women. I’m sorry.  And glad you got out when others couldn’t.

More power to you Kaya Jones

A FORMER member of the Pussycat Dolls has voiced a series of explosive allegations about the pop group, sensationally claiming the hitmakers were a front…

No Prostitution Day

Rebecca Mott

Today is International No Prostitution Day.

Wow, one day in the sea of pro-sex work propaganda.

One day to confront the male demand for the prostituted.

One day to grieve the endless rapes, torturing and murders of the prostituted.

One day to speak to the trauma, suicides and internal/external injuries that is the realities of the prostituted.

One day to say it is not drugs that push most into prostitution – no drugs becomes a way of staying alive by numbing and destroying the reality of being made into subhuman fuck toy.

One day to mourn how so many girls with no access to self-worth, often fron years of  neglect, abuse and isolation are the supply for sex trade profiteers.

One day no prostitution is the cure to female poverty – not when pimps steal the money, – and not when no money is ever enough to stop life-long trauma…

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Pyjama Manufacturers and PeTA Mourn Death of Hugh Hefner in Conditional Truce

It is a sad day for pyjama manufacturers world wide with the untimely death (at 91) of Playboy founder and self described feminist Hugh Hefner  today.

His passing is a sad reminder that time is fleeting even when and if you have been waiting, in the case of one feminist I know, “Forty fucking years!” for him to die and that perhaps we should not make such a mistake in the future.

Hefner, famous for misattributing the same quote every one misattributes to Gloria Steinem, “ A Woman needs a man like a fish needs a bicycle”, when he maturely pointed out “Look at her she married a man!”, will be sorely missed by fondue party worshippers, the gherkin and little franks on sticks obelisk society, and wankers alike, including People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals.

black screen shot * image of black silk pyjamas courtesy of Getty images

A number of feminists such as myself shall also don our own pyjamas and dance around a bonfire like the Witches he correctly assumed we were. Bring out your best and dance a little jig if you will ladies.  Perhaps send a card of condolence to a cravat wearer in your neighbourhood . Remind them that he fought hard for women’s reproductive rights particularly if they had a curfew and expressed their organic and irrepressible desire to perform sexuality exactly how men wanted them to.

He was a leader in his generation, forging access for the ‘every man’ to female objectification. As such, he shall be mourned by esteemed leaders of the free world such as Donald Trump as much as by your average fuckwit on the internet who has been emboldened to finally tell women what they think of them.

“He gave men like me a voice. Not just a wank, but a voice.” said blue collar bus driver Kelvin who was echoed in solidarity by several members of the Dubai Golfing Society and Deep Philosophical Thinkers ™ around the world. While the latter tend to use big words infused with post-modernist theory, Kelvin and his mate Bluey here in Australia use the more refreshing colloquialisms when encountering females on the internet, calling them ‘skanks’, ‘hos’ and other terms of endearment.

Feminists around the world have been informed by the Hefner estate that he planned something modest for his funeral edition. In honour of his competitor in misogyny Larry Flynt of Hustler magazine Hefner has apparently chosen to have an artists rendition of himself being put through a meat grinder wearing his trademark black (“black means serious” he famously once said) silk pyjamas. But so far sources have been unable to verify which brand. Interestingly, Versace might be considered too ‘gay’. Not that Hef was homophobic of course, his endorsement of manufactured ‘lesbian’ pornography directed exclusively by the male gaze is testament to that. But Dolce and Gabbana are less ‘flouncy’. Some more American American men are concerned he may not be wearing all American made silk pyjamas, but whatever anyone’s concerns, he will no doubt be wearing his favourite black velvet loafers by designer Di Fabrizio.

In other news, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals have sent their sincere condolences but say , “We will still be launching an investigation in to how many male silk worms died during Hefner’s long and industrious career.” Spokesperson Ingrid Internalisedmisogynist said “While we all might like the feel of silk, here at PeTA we shall be wearing black cotton pyjamas, ethically sourced from forced grain-fed women who have been treated with non-animal dyes. We’ll miss Hef and we support the pyjama industry, but he and they,would respect our decision much as we always respected his.”

Another group in mourning is the Liberals Against being Forced to Choose Between Coke and Pepsi (LABFCBP) who said, “Hef helped us a lot. He told us that we needn’t be ashamed whatever we chose to mix with our Jack Daniels. There is an interview where he said as long as it has Jack Daniels in it it doesn’t matter.”

The LABFCBP are currently launching a petition to be included in next years Pride March but so far are worried that despite Hefner’s legacy, the event might be still considered a little too ‘gay”.